Back-end Development: Types of Languages

Back-end languages will vary in terms of file size, performance, compatibility, the number of lines of code needed, and programming style. Some back-end scripting languages use the object-oriented programming paradigm, which groups attributes and functions into objects. Other languages might be compiled rather than interpreted, which impacts how quickly the application loads, how readable it is, and how much processing power is needed to operate it.

Let’s take a look at the different types of back-end programming languages.


C++ is an enhanced C language typically used for object oriented programming. It is utilized as a low-level programming language to effectively communicate with system hardware for improved performance. This makes it perfect for system-level performance-sensitive applications like video games, huge web apps, and other use cases.


The preferred language for Windows servers and environments is C#. If your development team uses Microsoft technologies like ASP.NET as the foundation of your technological stack, C# is probably going to be the most effective language for them to use.


An object-oriented general-purpose programming language called Java was created with cross-platform compatibility in mind. Java programs can be run on any computer that has the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed.

JavaScript (Node.js)

While traditionally considered a front-end scripting language, the introduction of Node.js showed the world that this general-purpose object-oriented programming language could also be used on the server side of applications. As one of the core technologies of the web, JavaScript is now a popular choice for front-end and back-end web development.


PHP is the most popular back-end language for the web. PHP has a low learning curve and the benefit of a massive codebase and long history of open-source developer community support for using PHP on the back end of websites. If you’ve ever set up a personal website with WordPress, PHP was powering the back end from behind the scenes.


A powerful library for data processing is available in the general-purpose programming language Python. Python’s simple syntax and short code length make it a more productive programming language for back-end development.


Developed by Larry Wall in the 1990s, Perl is a general-purpose programming language that’s popular in the Linux and Unix world. Perl’s strengths lie in text manipulation and log management. It’s great for writing short automation scripts on the fly.


Scala is a general-purpose programming language that supports both functional and object-oriented programming paradigms. Because Scala is based on Java, it is still powered by the JVM and compatible with Java.


Developed in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto, Ruby is a dynamically typed general-purpose programming language that’s known for programmer productivity. It supports procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming paradigms and is known for its ability to incorporate metaprogramming into apps (code that can change while it’s running).


Shiotsu, Y. (2021, August 17). A beginner’s guide to back-end development. Retrieved August 31, 2022, from

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